Define Stored procedure ?

It is a collection of transact sql statements that can take or return user supplied parameters.

Maximum size of stored procedure is 128 MB.

Difference between Having and Group By clause ?

Having Clause : To filter the rows from the grouped results

Group By : is used for grouping the operation.

Group by : Ccause  is used to group the output of the WHERE clause..

Define View ?

It is nothing but a virtual table that represent the data in one or more tables in a alternative way.

What is index ?

Index is a pointer in sql server to retrieve the data faster from database.

It’s a physical structure containing pointers to data.

Its created in existing tables to locate rows more quickly and efficiently.

Types of Index:

a)    Clustered Index : It contains only one index ie: Creating a primary key for the table.
Physical sorting of data in the storage media.

b)    Non-Clustered Index :  A table can contains 249 non-clustered index, It can be created outside of the database tables , that contain a sorted list of references to the table itself.

Define Delegates ?

Delegate is  a class that can hold reference to a method or a function .

Delegate class has a signature and it only reference those method whose signature is compliant with the class.

Delegates are type safe , secure , object oriented.

Difference b/w int.Parse and Convert.ToInt32()?

Int.Parse – It can’t handle NULL value.

Convert.ToInt32 – It handles null value and converts value to default value ‘0’.

What is Finalize and Dispose ?

Finalize:  - Automatically done by garbage collector  to clean the resource memory.

Dispose: - Force the user to dispose objects.

Boxing and Unboxing ?


Implicit conversion of any value type to the type object.
Value types are stored on stack.
Reference or object type are stored on heap.


Explicit conversion from object type to value type.

Reflection ?

You can see the metadata information through reflection mechanism.

Ability to inspect and manipulate programs elements at runtime.

It’s the process of runtime type discovery.

Reflection Services:

Load an assembly at runtime.
Enumerate members of a type.
Instantiate a new object.
Execute the members of an object.
Find out the information about a type .
Find out the information about a assembly
Inspect custome attributes applied to a type.
Create and compile new assembly.

What is Session ?

Session is used to store user details particularly userid and user information so once you set the information  in session you can get the data anywhere in the project .


Session[“username”] = “Venkat”;

How to write stored procedure – give syntax ?

Create Procedue <procedureName>
Your parameter
< your Sql Statement>

To create a new Guid?

Guid getnewID = Guid.NewGuid();

Difference between timestamp and uniqueidentifier ?


Size – 8 bytes.
Note based on system date or time
To track the operation in tables on the database level.


16 – bytes.
Value is based on the computer MAC Addresss and system datetime.
It remains unique in any system in the world.

How to convert from string to GUID ?

String mystring = “xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx”;

Guid = new Guid(mystring);

Newid() = Globally unique identifier

NewSequentialId() – Globally sequential identifier

Where the session is stored ?

<sessionState  mode =”InProc” cookieless=”False” timeout=”20”/>

By default Cookieless is set to false – so the session Id is stored in Cookies so as long as user navigating the page you can get the session from cookies.

If you set the cookieless =”True” the session id is stored on the browser url before the file name

Ex: http://yourserver/folder/(sessionid)/default.aspx

Drawback is if the user working on the site it has assigned some sessionId on the url  , by giving the different url on Address bar and do some process once the user type same url at that time it will give different sessionid, the previous session will be lost and lost all of previous state.

Default timeout for session is 20 Mins.

Default timeout for Form authentication 30 Mins.

How to display the Name on Email to address


MailMessage msg = new MailMessage();

Msg.from = new mailAddress(“”, “Test”);

Form authentication Configuration

<authentication mode=”forms”>
<forms name =”.ASPXAUTH” login url=”login.aspx” protection=”All” timeout=”30” path=”/”/>

How to keep the session alive?

<sessionState timeout=”20” mode=”InProc” />

By default  slidingexpiration is enabled = “true” so when the momen postback occurs or user utilizing the controls, session timeout  counter is refreshed so the session remains active.

To get the Username from the masterPage while using login Control ?

String username = Page.User.Identity.Name;

How to get a random row from a table in SQL server ?

Select Top 1 columName from Tablename Order by newid()

How to get the last inserted ID from the table ?

There are two ways to get the ID of the last inserted record.

String  Squlquery = “insert into tablename(categoryname) values (@categoryname);”  + “Select  Scope_Identity()”;

So use ExecuteScalar to get the ID of the last inserted Record.

Int getLastID = (int) cmd.ExecuteScalar();

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